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Catalogue of pollen types

Notes on angiosperms (monocots)

  1. See Punt & Reumer (1981).
  2. Included in Damasonium-type by Moore et al. (1989), but is the only species of the type found in the British Isles.
  3. No reference material or descriptions seen for Hydrilla verticillata.
  4. Equivalent to Potamogeton-type of Birks (1973) and Faegri & Iversen (1989), and to Potamogeton subgenus Potamogeton type of Moore et al. (1989).
  5. Equivalent to Coleogeton-type of Faegri & Iversen (1989), and to Potamogeton subgenus Coleogeton type of Birks (1973) and Moore et al. (1989).
  6. No reference material seen for Spirodela polyrhiza or Wolffia arrhiza.
  7. See Furness (1988).
  8. Some distinctions may be possible within this grouping (see Birks 1973). Pollen of Dulichium arundinaceum, found as macrofossils in pre-Holocene warm-stage sediments, resembles Cyperaceae undiff. pollen.
  9. Separation into types based on Andersen (1979), with additional observations from the SDQR reference collection. All native British species have been covered, except Vulpia ciliata, Puccinellia rupestris, Poa infirma, Agrostis vinealis, Calamogrostis purpurea, Gastridium ventricosum, Bromus commutatus, Hordeum marinum, and Danthonia decumbens. At least one native species has been covered from all native genera except Gastridium and Danthonia. Pollen of the many interspecific or intergeneric hybrids has not been examined. Note that value for 'pollen size' given in Andersen (1979) is a mean of the largest diameter, and the diameter perpendicular to that, standardized for a constant control size of Corylus pollen. Andrew (1984) does not mention what her measurements refer to, but they appear to be maximum sizes.
  10. This species arose c. 1890 as an amphidiploid of a hybrid between native Spartina maritima and introduced Spartina alterniflora. Its pollen is placed in this group because of its large size and pore diameter, but is unlikely to occur in any sediments except surface sediments from tidal mud-flats.
  11. Some grains of Helictotrichon pratense may be included in this group.
  12. Einkorn wheat: occurred as a crop grown by prehistoric people (Zohary & Hopf 1988).
  13. See Punt (1976), whose nomenclature on types is followed.
  14. Typha angustifolia-type of Moore et al. (1991).
  15. See Punt (1976).
  16. Included in Typha latifolia-type by Moore et al. (1989), but is the only species of the type found in the British Isles.
  17. Equivalent to Fritillaria-type of Moore et al. (1989).
  18. SDQR reference material indicates that Lloydia serotina belongs in the Fritillaria meleagris-type, not Scilla-type (cf. Moore et al. 1991).
  19. Equivalent to Convallaria-type of Moore et al. (1989).
  20. Equivalent to Paris-type of Moore et al. (1989).
  21. Size variation between native species of Polygonatum suggests that the distinction between Polygonatum and Allium-type in Moore et al. (1991) cannot be maintained.
  22. Equivalent to Galanthus-type of Moore et al. (1989).
  23. Equivalent to Iris-type of Moore et al. (1989).
  24. Equivalent to Gladiolus-type of Moore et al. (1989).
  25. See Clarke & Jones (1981b).
  26. I have not seen reference material or descriptions for Epipogium aphyllum, Liparis loeselii, Coralorrhiza trifida, Herminium monorchis, Pseudorchis albida, Dactylorhiza praetermissa, D. majalis, D. traunsteineri, D. lapponica, Neotinea maculata, Orchis militaris, Aceras anthropophorum, and Himantoglossum hircinum. The split into types thus does not take into account pollen of these species.
  27. Dispersed as single grains, psilate, di- or tri-colpate.
  28. Dispersed as single grains, monoporate, coarsely reticulate. All species in the genus appear to be similar, as Moore et al. (1989) suggest.
  29. Dispersed as tetrads, monoporate, coarsely reticulate. Includes all examined species of the Tribe Neottieae (except Cephalanthera) plus Platanthera chlorantha. Tetrads of Goodyera repens may remain clumped in pollinia.
  30. Dispersed as pollinia, which are often 0.2 mm long, or more (and hence excluded from most pollen preparations by sieving). Grains adhere tightly, and will break rather than separate. Sculpturing varies from psilate to coarsely reticulate. Includes all examined species of the Tribes Epidendreae and Orchideae, except Platanthera chlorantha.

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